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Humanity should acquire alternative energy technologies before fossil fuel are past

Photovoltaic systems are converting sunlight into electricity. A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is a primary device that converts light into direct current (DC) using the photoelectric effect, when electrons are emitted from matter (usually from semiconductor as a silicon) after the absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays or visible light. Ordinary, Photovoltaic (PV) cells are semiconductor devices, usually made of silicon, which contain no liquids, corrosive chemicals or moving parts. They produce electricity as long as light shines on them, they require little maintenance, do not pollute and they operate silently, making photovoltaic energy the cleanest and safest method of power generation.
Single PV cells are connected electrically to form PV modules, which are the main building blocks of PV systems. The module is the smallest PV unit that can be used to generate substantial amounts of PV power. Although individual PV cells produce only small amounts of electricity, PV modules are manufactured with varying electrical outputs ranging from a few watts to more than 200 watts of direct current (DC) electricity. The modules can be connected into PV arrays for powering a wide variety of electrical equipment.
Two primary types of PV technologies available commercially are crystalline-silicon and thin film. In crystalline-silicon technologies, individual PV cells are cut from large single crystals or from ingots of crystalline silicon. In thin-film PV technologies, the PV material is deposited on glass or thin metal that mechanically supports the cell or module. Thin-film-based modules are produced in sheets that are sized for specified electrical outputs.
In addition to the PV systems, should be used balance-of-system (BOS) equipment. This includes battery charge controllers, batteries, inverters (for converting DC to AC for loads requiring alternating current), wires, conduit, a grounding circuit, fuses, safety disconnects, outlets, meters, metal structures for supporting the modules, trackers for moving modules along sun-wise and any additional components that are part of the PV system.

PV systems are as a Stan alone or Grid-connected.

Grid-connected system                                          Stand alone system


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